Data Engineering Problems & Their Solutions with the Use of Python

Maria Chojnowska

21 April 2023, 8 min read

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What's inside

  1. What is data engineering?
  2. Data engineering characteristics
  3. Most frequent data engineering problems and their solutions with the use of Python
  4. Summing up
  5. Contact us
  6. Read more

Data Engineering is the backbone of modern businesses, transforming vast amounts of raw data into actionable insights and driving growth. From collecting and storing data to cleaning and transforming it, data engineers play a crucial role in ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the information. With the increasing demand for data-driven decision-making, the importance of data engineering has never been higher. In this article, we explore the most valid problems that may await us concerning this topic and relevant solutions with Python.

What is data engineering?

Data Engineering is a field that focuses on the technical aspects of collecting, storing, processing, and analyzing large and complex data sets. It involves designing, constructing, and maintaining systems and infrastructure to manage data in a scalable, efficient, and reliable manner. Data Engineers work to build and maintain the data pipelines, making them accessible to data scientists, analysts, and business decision-makers. Data Engineering aims to enable organizations to make data-driven decisions by providing them with the correct information - at the right time and format.

Read more “What is Data Engineering? - Complex guide with examples

Data engineering characteristics

Data Engineering is characterized by several key traits, including

  • Ability to handle large volumes of data and support growth as data grows
  • Ensuring data quality, accuracy, and consistency over time
  • Processing and storing data efficiently, reducing the time and storage costs
  • Adaptation to changing business needs and support for multiple use cases.
  • Automation of as much of the data pipeline as possible, reducing manual effort and errors
  • Prioritizing data privacy and security, ensuring sensitive information is appropriately protected
  • Ability to integrate with existing systems and technologies

Most frequent data engineering problems and their solutions with the use of Python

Data quality

Poor data quality can result in inaccurate analysis and decision making, leading to business problems and inefficiencies. Some common issues are

  1. Inconsistent formatting

Problem: Different data sources may have different formats, leading to inconsistencies when combined.

Solution: Data may need to be transformed into a different format or structure to meet the needs of other systems and applications. Python libraries such as pandas, numpy, and scikit-learn can perform data transformations - aggregating data, normalizing it, and encoding categorical variables.

  1. Duplicate data

Problem: Duplicate records can result in inflated data volumes and affect the accuracy of the analysis.

Solution: Data can be cleaned by removing duplicates, filling in missing values, and correcting inconsistencies. Python libraries such as pandas, numpy, and scikit-learn can perform these tasks.

  1. Missing, incomplete, incorrect, or outdated data

Problem: They can lead to inaccurate results, skew analysis, poor decision-making, and negatively impact business results

Solution: Data validation is the process of verifying the accuracy and completeness of data. You can use Python libraries like pyvalidate to validate the data according to a set of rules, such as data type and range. Data Profiling involves analyzing the data to identify patterns, trends, and anomalies that may indicate quality issues. The panda's library in Python is commonly used for data profiling, allowing you to manipulate and explore data easily.



Scalability is a significant challenge in Data Engineering as the volume of data being generated and processed continues to grow. It refers to the ability of a system to handle an increasing amount of work, in this case, an increasing volume of data. Some of the most frequent scalability issues are

  1. Data Storage

Problem: Storing large amounts of data can be challenging, and Data Engineering systems must be able to handle growing data volumes.

Solution: By distributing the processing load across multiple nodes, Data Engineering systems can handle larger volumes of data. Python libraries such as Apache Spark, Dask, and Celery can be used to implement distributed processing.

  1. Processing Speed

Problem: As data volumes grow, the speed at which they can be processed becomes increasingly essential. Data Engineering systems must be able to handle the to access cloud computing resources and increased processing demands.

Solution: Partitioning data into smaller chunks can make processing and storage more efficient and scalable. It can be performed using Python libraries such as pandas and Dask.

  1. Network Bandwidth

Problem: Transferring large amounts of data between systems and networks can strain network bandwidth, slowing down the data transfer process.

Solution: Optimizing the data transfer process, such as compressing data, can reduce the strain on network bandwidth and improve scalability. You can use Python libraries such as gzip and bzip2 to compress data.

  1. Data Transfer

Problem: Moving data between systems and processing nodes can be slow and inefficient, impacting scalability.

Solution: Cloud computing can provide scalable computing resources, such as storage and processing power, to support Data Engineering systems. To access cloud computing resources you can use Python libraries such as Boto3 and Google Cloud Client Library.

  1. Resource Constraints

Problem: Data Engineering systems may face resource constraints, such as memory, disk space, and CPU capacity, that limit their scalability.

Solution: Caching intermediate results and preprocessing data can reduce the strain on processing resources and improve scalability. It can be done with the use of Python libraries such as memcached and Redis.


Maintenance is a critical aspect of Data Engineering, as data systems must be maintained and updated to ensure they continue to function effectively over time. The following are some of the most common maintenance problems you can face:

  1. System Upgrades

Problem: Data Engineering systems must be upgraded and updated to address bugs, security vulnerabilities, and performance issues.

Solution: Building Data Engineering systems with a modular design, where each component can be updated and maintained independently, can simplify maintenance and make it easier to upgrade systems over time. To implement modular design in web applications you can use Python frameworks such as Flask and Django.

  1. Monitoring and logging

Problem: Without proper Monitoring Data Engineering systems you might not be able to detect and resolve issues before they become problems.

Solution: To implement monitoring and logging you can use Python libraries such as Loguru and Logbook.

  1. Testing and Quality Assurance

Problem: Data Engineering systems may not always function correctly as changes are made over time.

Solution: Automated testing and quality assurance can help ensure that they continue to function well - you can use Python libraries such as PyTest and nose.


As data systems must process and analyze large amounts of data in real-time to provide meaningful insights, their top-notch performance is of great importance. Here are some of the problems you may run into

  1. Data Volume

Problem: Data Engineering systems must be able to handle large amounts of data, which can strain system performance.

Solution: Optimizing the performance of Data Engineering systems can involve reducing the amount of data processed, improving algorithms, and reducing I/O operations. It can be done using Python libraries such as NumPy and Pandas.

  1. Data Latency

Problem: Data Engineering systems must provide real-time insights, which requires low latency and fast processing times.

Solution: Caching can improve the performance of Data Engineering systems by reducing the need to access data from slow sources. To implement caching, use Python libraries such as Joblib and Redis.


Security is an important issue, as data systems often process and store sensitive information, such as personal, financial, and confidential business data. Some of the most popular security problems are

  1. Data Breaches

Problem: Data Engineering systems are vulnerable to data breaches, which can result in the unauthorized access or theft of sensitive information.

Solution: Encrypting data at rest and in transit can protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or theft. To implement encryption you can use Python libraries such as cryptography and PyNaCl.

  1. Inadequate Access Controls

Problem: Data Engineering systems may have inadequate access controls, allowing unauthorized users to access sensitive data.

Solution: Implementing robust access controls, such as authentication and authorization, can ensure that only authorized users can access sensitive data. Use Python libraries such as Flask-Login and Django-Auth to implement access controls.

  1. Unsecured Data Storage

Problem: Data Engineering systems may not have proper security controls for data storage, leaving sensitive information vulnerable.

Solution: Penetration testing can help identify and remediate security vulnerabilities in Data Engineering systems. Python libraries such as Scapy and Paramiko can be used to perform penetration testing.

  1. Data Privacy Regulations

Problem: Data Engineering systems must also comply with data privacy regulations, such as GDPR and HIPAA, which can be a security challenge.

Solution: You can use Python libraries such as PyDPC and PyHIPAA to ensure compliance with these regulations.

Summing up

In conclusion, Python is a powerful tool for Data Engineers and provides a wealth of libraries and tools to address the challenges in Data Engineering. Using it can improve your systems' efficiency, effectiveness, and security and ultimately help organizations make better data-driven decisions.

Contact us

Contact us at or submit the form.


Read more

  1. What is Data Engineering? - Complex guide with examples
  2. Who is a Data Engineer?
  3. How to become a Data Engineer?
  4. Why is Data Engineering important?
  5. Data Engineering vs Software Engineering


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